Author Archives: Lex Fridman

#214 – Jed Buchwald: Isaac Newton and the Philosophy of Science

Jed Buchwald is a historian and philosopher of science at Caltech. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
GiveWell: https://www.givewell.org/ and use code LEX to get donation matched up to $1k
Theragun: https://therabody.com/lex to get 30 day trial
LMNT: https://drinkLMNT.com/lex to get free sample pack
Fundrise: https://fundrise.com/lex
BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off

EPISODE LINKS:
Jed’s Caltech page: https://bit.ly/38eLLRF
Jed’s Books: https://amzn.to/2WoxGPi

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(06:34) – How does science progress?
(22:48) – Theory of Everything
(34:40) – Consciousness
(38:15) – Most Beautiful Moments in Science
(46:00) – Isaac Newton
(1:12:13) – Competition in Science
(1:22:47) – Newton’s Career
(1:35:58) – Importance of Data
(1:42:17) – Alchemy
(1:46:31) – Newton and Religion
(1:49:44) – Showing Newton the future
(1:54:28) – Newton and Einstein

#213 – Barry Barish: Gravitational Waves and the Most Precise Device Ever Built

Barry Barish is a theoretical physicist at Caltech and the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
MUD\WTR: https://mudwtr.com/lex and use code LEX to get 5% off
GiveDirectly: https://givedirectly.org/lex to get gift matched up to $300
BiOptimizers: http://www.magbreakthrough.com/lex to get 10% off
Four Sigmatic: https://foursigmatic.com/lex and use code LexPod to get up to 60% off
Magic Spoon: https://magicspoon.com/lex and use code LEX to get $5 off

EPISODE LINKS:
Barry’s Nobel Prize entry: https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/2017/barish/facts/
Barry’s Caltech profile: https://pma.caltech.edu/people/barry-c-barish
LIGO’s Website: https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/
LIGO’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/LIGO

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(08:27) – Early Math and Physics questions
(18:02) – Enrico Fermi
(24:34) – Birth of the Nuclear Age
(29:42) – The Fermi Paradox
(34:45) – Gravity
(51:28) – Philosophical Implications of General Relativity
(58:34) – Detecting Gravitational Waves
(1:01:47) – LIGO
(1:34:45) – Nobel Prize
(1:49:34) – Black Holes
(2:01:53) – Space Exploration
(2:09:48) – Books
(2:18:37) – Advice for young people
(2:24:33) – Meaning of life

#212 – Joscha Bach: Nature of Reality, Dreams, and Consciousness

Joscha Bach is a cognitive scientist, AI researcher, and philosopher. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Coinbase: https://coinbase.com/lex to get $5 in free Bitcoin
Codecademy: https://codecademy.com and use code LEX to get 15% off
Linode: https://linode.com/lex to get $100 free credit
NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour
ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod and use code LexPod to get 3 months free

EPISODE LINKS:
Joscha’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/Plinz
Joscha’s Website: http://bach.ai

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(07:15) – Life is hard
(09:38) – Consciousness
(16:24) – What is life?
(26:33) – Free will
(40:38) – Simulation
(42:49) – Base layer of reality
(58:24) – Boston Dynamics
(1:06:43) – Engineering consciousness
(1:17:12) – Suffering
(1:26:06) – Postmodernism
(1:30:25) – Psychedelics
(1:43:40) – GPT-3
(1:52:22) – GPT-4
(1:58:47) – OpenAI Codex
(2:01:02) – Humans vs AI: Who is more dangerous?
(2:17:47) – Hitler
(2:22:44) – Autonomous weapon systems
(2:30:11) – Mark Zuckerberg
(2:35:47) – Love
(2:50:00) – Michael Malice and anarchism
(3:06:57) – Love
(3:11:05) – Advice for young people
(3:15:42) – Meaning of life

#211 – Brian Muraresku: The Secret History of Psychedelics

Brian Muraresku is the author of The Immortality Key. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex and use code Lex25 to get 25% off
GiveWell: https://www.givewell.org/ and use code LEX to get donation matched up to $1k
NI: https://www.ni.com/perspectives
Indeed: https://indeed.com/lex to get $75 credit
MasterClass: https://masterclass.com/lex to get 15% off

EPISODE LINKS:
Brian’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/brianmuraresku
Brian’s website: https://www.brianmuraresku.com
Immortality Key (book): https://amzn.to/3iNYBfB

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(09:46) – Who or what is God?
(25:15) – Terence McKenna’s DMT Trips
(29:58) – Psychedelics were the source of collective intelligence
(40:30) – Psychedelics in ancient alcohol
(43:30) – The Immortality Key
(46:16) – Jesus and psychedelic wine
(58:56) – Role of rituals in human society
(1:02:37) – Human confrontation with death
(1:05:15) – The future of the human experience
(1:17:07) – The role of religion in society
(1:22:54) – The future of psychedelics research
(1:26:05) – Fasting and meditation as religious experiences
(1:29:44) – Neuralink and BCIs
(1:36:42) – Is LSD a crutch or an aid in creative work
(1:39:21) – Nietzsche said God is dead
(1:41:48) – Creatures people meet while on psychedelics
(1:47:18) – Consciousness
(1:53:41) – Books or movies that made an impact
(1:57:39) – Meaning of life

#210 – Matt Walker: Sleep

Matt Walker is a sleep scientist at Berkeley, author of Why We Sleep, and the host of a new podcast called The Matt Walker Podcast. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Stamps.com: https://stamps.com and use code LEX to get free postage & scale
Squarespace: https://lexfridman.com/squarespace and use code LEX to get 10% off
Athletic Greens: https://athleticgreens.com/lex and use code LEX to get 1 month of fish oil
BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off
Onnit: https://lexfridman.com/onnit to get up to 10% off

EPISODE LINKS:
Matt’s Podcast: https://themattwalkerpodcast.buzzsprout.com/
Matt’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/sleepdiplomat
Matt’s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/drmattwalker
Matt’s Website: https://www.sleepdiplomat.com/

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(09:56) – Putin moment: Lex takes Matt’s sunglasses
(10:17) – Fascination with sleep
(14:26) – Why do we sleep?
(22:58) – Computer vision for driver assistance
(32:19) – Consciousness is fundamental
(40:25) – Lex on human to robot connection
(42:52) – Scent of a Woman is better than “John Wick”
(54:33) – Distinction between coffee and caffeine
(1:20:17) – The science of ‘sleeping on it’
(1:34:10) – Lex on his sleeping schedule
(1:59:14) – Chronotypes
(2:06:44) – How to overcome insomnia
(2:24:07) – Diet and sleep
(2:33:03) – Where do dreams come from?
(2:46:41) – How sleep affects emotions
(2:53:35) – Meaning of life

#209 – Luís and João Batalha: Fermat’s Library and the Art of Studying Papers

Luis and Joao Batalha are co-founders of Fermat’s Library. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Skiff: https://skiff.org/lex to get early access
SimpliSafe: https://simplisafe.com/lex and use code LEX to get a free security camera
Indeed: https://indeed.com/lex to get $75 credit
NetSuite: http://netsuite.com/lex to get free product tour
Four Sigmatic: https://foursigmatic.com/lex and use code LexPod to get up to 60% off

EPISODE LINKS:
Fermat’s Library Twitter: https://twitter.com/fermatslibrary
Luis’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/luismbat
Joao’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/joao_batalha
Fermat’s Library Website: https://fermatslibrary.com

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(10:18) – Backstories to research papers
(25:09) – Fermat’s Library
(45:10) – Scientific publishing
(1:08:50) – How to read a paper
(1:14:44) – Taking good notes
(1:23:23) – Favorite papers on Fermat’s Library
(2:04:14) – Fermat’s Library on Twitter
(2:13:46) – What it takes to build a successful startup
(2:22:43) – Game of Thrones
(2:25:30) – Realism in science fiction movies
(2:31:29) – Greatest soccer player of all time
(2:54:18) – Advice for young people

#208 – Jeff Hawkins: The Thousand Brains Theory of Intelligence

Jeff Hawkins is a neuroscientist and cofounder of Numenta, a neuroscience research company. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Codecademy: https://codecademy.com and use code LEX to get 15% off
BiOptimizers: http://www.magbreakthrough.com/lex to get 10% off
ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod and use code LexPod to get 3 months free
Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/lex and use code LEX to get special savings
Blinkist: https://blinkist.com/lex and use code LEX to get 25% off premium

EPISODE LINKS:
A Thousand Brain (book): https://amzn.to/3AmxJt7
Numenta’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/Numenta
Numenta’s Website: https://numenta.com/

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(10:35) – Collective intelligence
(17:17) – The origin of intelligence in the human brain
(30:31) – How intelligent life evolved on Earth
(41:30) – Why humans are special in the universe
(44:48) – Neurons
(49:02) – A Thousand Brains theory of intelligence
(57:42) – How to build superintelligent AI
(1:15:41) – Sam Harris and existential risk of AI
(1:27:43) – Neuralink
(1:34:34) – Will AI prevent the self-destruction of human civilization?
(1:40:05) – Communicating human knowledge to alien civilizations
(1:50:22) – Devil’s advocate
(1:55:16) – Human nature
(2:03:39) – Hardware for AI
(2:10:18) – Advice for young people

#207 – Chris Duffin: The Mad Scientist of Strength

Chris Duffin is a strength athlete, coach, and engineer, setting multiple strength world records including squatting and deadlifting 1000 lbs for multiple reps. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Headspace: https://headspace.com/lex to get free 1 month trial
Magic Spoon: https://magicspoon.com/lex and use code LEX to get $5 off
Sun Basket: https://sunbasket.com/lex and use code LEX to get $35 off
Ladder: https://ladderlife.com/lex

EPISODE LINKS:
Chris’s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/mad_scientist_duffin
The Eagle and the Dragon (book): https://amzn.to/3Ckpfoj
Chris’s Website: https://christopherduffin.com
Kabuki Strength: https://kabukistrength.com

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(07:10) – Performing feats of strength
(13:52) – What does it take to lift 1000 lbs for reps?
(16:43) – From 500 to 1000lb
(17:15) – The mechanics of heavy lifting
(28:32) – What did it feel like to do 1000lbs for reps?
(30:26) – Achieving peak performance
(35:16) – Importance of singular focus
(37:48) – Chris’s childhood
(50:37) – The Eagle and the Dragon: A Story of Strength and Reinvention
(58:21) – Lex on business
(1:04:52) – The Disciplines of Strength
(1:09:33) – Powerlifting
(1:22:37) – Role of strength in MMA, BJJ… and baseball
(1:32:38) – What is Kabuki Strength?
(1:38:55) – Equipment
(1:50:09) – The importance of strong feet
(1:59:15) – Chris’s diet
(2:05:37) – Lex on moderation in food
(2:06:11) – Steroids and PED’s
(2:24:14) – Whiskey and deadlifts
(2:33:03) – Is it better to work hard or smart?
(2:41:52) – Advice for young people
(2:45:02) – Fear of death

#206 – Ishan Misra: Self-Supervised Deep Learning in Computer Vision

Ishan Misra is a research scientist at FAIR working on self-supervised visual learning. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Onnit: https://lexfridman.com/onnit to get up to 10% off
The Information: https://theinformation.com/lex to get 75% off first month
Grammarly: https://grammarly.com/lex to get 20% off premium
Athletic Greens: https://athleticgreens.com/lex and use code LEX to get 1 month of fish oil

EPISODE LINKS:
Ishan’s twitter: https://twitter.com/imisra_
Ishan’s website: https://imisra.github.io
Ishan’s FAIR page: https://ai.facebook.com/people/ishan-misra/

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(07:49) – Self-supervised learning
(16:24) – Self-supervised learning is the dark matter of intelligence
(20:17) – Categorization
(28:50) – Is computer vision still really hard?
(32:35) – Understanding Language
(42:14) – Harder to solve: vision or language
(48:59) – Contrastive learning & energy-based models
(52:59) – Data augmentation
(57:19) – Fixed audio spike by lowering sound with pen tool
(1:05:33) – Real data vs. augmented data
(1:09:16) – Non-contrastive learning energy based self supervised learning methods
(1:12:54) – Unsupervised learning (SwAV)
(1:15:37) – Self-supervised Pretraining (SEER)
(1:20:44) – Self-supervised learning (SSL) architectures
(1:26:43) – VISSL pytorch-based SSL library
(1:29:38) – Multi-modal
(1:37:06) – Active learning
(1:42:45) – Autonomous driving
(1:54:12) – Limits of deep learning
(1:58:19) – Difference between learning and reasoning
(2:03:26) – Building super-human AI
(2:11:14) – Most beautiful idea in self-supervised learning
(2:15:02) – Simulation for training AI
(2:18:27) – Video games replacing reality
(2:19:40) – How to write a good research paper
(2:24:08) – Best programming language for beginners
(2:25:01) – PyTorch vs TensorFlow
(2:28:26) – Advice for getting into machine learning
(2:30:31) – Advice for young people
(2:32:58) – Meaning of life

#205 – Zach Bitter: Ultramarathon Running

Zach Bitter is an ultramarathon runner and coach. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Ladder: https://ladderlife.com/lex
Belcampo: https://belcampo.com/lex and use code LEX to get 20% off first order
Noom: https://trynoom.com/lex
BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off

EPISODE LINKS:
Zach’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/zbitter
Zach’s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/zachbitter
Zach’s Website: https://zachbitter.com/

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(07:34) – The marathon mentality
(14:43) – The psychology of quitting
(25:49) – Variety in ultramarathons
(33:04) – What does it take to run 100 miles?
(38:27) – Leading ultramarathon events
(42:09) – Training and race strategy
(44:39) – 100 Mile world record
(48:41) – Foot strike variability and cadence
(51:29) – The 11 hour barrier
(54:57) – The most beautiful thing about running
(1:01:19) – Zach’s training regime
(1:06:06) – MAF 180 Formula
(1:16:31) – Training plans
(1:31:30) – Marathons vs. 100 miles
(1:40:31) – Zach’s diet philosophy
(1:55:19) – Fueling for race day
(2:02:34) – Training while fasted
(2:06:11) – Embracing the chaos
(2:07:41) – 100-Mile treadmill WR
(2:11:51) – The legend of Bert Kreischer
(2:16:16) – The Transcontinental Run across America
(2:33:51) – Who is the greatest endurance athlete of all time?
(2:41:04) – Shoe technology in running
(2:54:14) – Human limits
(2:56:49) – Zach’s biggest obstacles
(3:00:34) – Advice for young people