Author Archives: Lex Fridman

#234 – Stephen Wolfram: Complexity and the Fabric of Reality

Stephen Wolfram is a computer scientist, mathematician, and theoretical physicist. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
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EPISODE LINKS:
Stephen’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/stephen_wolfram
Stephen’s Blog: https://writings.stephenwolfram.com
Wolfram Physics Project: https://www.wolframphysics.org
A New Kind of Science (book): https://amzn.to/30XoEun
Fundamental Theory of Physics (book): https://amzn.to/30XbAoT

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(07:50) – What is complexity
(20:51) – Randomness in the universe
(25:12) – The Wolfram Physics Project
(37:14) – Space and time are discrete
(49:19) – Quantum mechanics and hypergraphs
(58:33) – What is intelligence
(1:09:16) – Computational equivalence
(1:17:36) – What it is like to be a cellular automata
(1:32:00) – Making prediction vs explanations
(1:45:20) – Why does the universe exist
(1:51:01) – The universe and rulial space
(1:59:44) – Does an atom have consciousness
(2:10:10) – Why does our universe exist
(2:18:41) – What is outside the ruliad
(2:29:15) – Automated proof systems
(2:45:10) – Multicomputation for biology
(3:03:41) – Cardano NFT collaboration with Wolfram Alpha
(3:10:41) – Global theory of economics

#233 – Carl Hart: Heroin, Cocaine, MDMA, Alcohol & the Role of Drugs in Society

Carl Hart is a psychologist at Columbia University. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex and use code Lex25 to get 25% off
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EPISODE LINKS:
Carl’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/drcarlhart
Carl’s Website: https://drcarlhart.com
Drug Use for Grown-Ups (book): https://amzn.to/3lVpq2Y

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(07:33) – The experience of drugs
(18:38) – Drug use for grownups
(24:21) – Studies on drugs
(25:31) – Negative effects of drugs
(30:59) – Should all drugs be legalized
(36:27) – War on drugs: positive or negative
(42:19) – Proper, positive, and misuse of drugs
(46:40) – Recovery
(53:34) – Drug depiction in movies
(57:05) – How the study of drugs changed Carl
(59:28) – Formative memories
(1:03:57) – Greatest hip hop artist of all time
(1:07:19) – What mind altering drugs teach us
(1:11:26) – Advice for young people
(1:13:31) – The meaning of life

#232 – Brian Greene: Quantum Gravity, Big Bang, Aliens, Life, Death, and Meaning

Brian Greene is a theoretical physicist. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
The Prisoner Wine Company: https://theprisonerwine.com/lex to get 20% off & free shipping
Blinkist: https://blinkist.com/lex and use code LEX to get 25% off premium
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BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off
NI: https://www.ni.com/perspectives

EPISODE LINKS:
Brian’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/bgreene
Brian’s Website: http://www.briangreene.org/
Until the End of Time (book): https://amzn.to/2XuqXUi

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(06:53) – Entropy
(15:01) – Consciousness
(31:20) – Quantum gravity
(34:40) – String theory
(48:07) – Time
(1:00:39) – Free will
(1:05:02) – Emergence and complexity
(1:12:14) – The Big Bang
(1:25:13) – Extraterrestrial life
(1:35:35) – Space exploration
(1:43:33) – Fear of death

#231 – Alex Gladstein: Bitcoin, Authoritarianism, and Human Rights

Alex Gladstein is the Chief Strategy Officer at the Human Rights Foundation and the Oslo Freedom Forum. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Stripe: https://stripe.com
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EPISODE LINKS:
Alex’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/gladstein
The Little Bitcoin Book: https://littlebitcoinbook.com/
Human Rights Foundation: https://hrf.org/

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(08:36) – Universal human rights
(22:35) – Authoritarianism
(32:46) – AIs impact on civil liberties
(44:09) – Edward Snowden and government surveillance
(47:48) – Money
(52:01) – Bitcoin
(1:07:48) – Government response to Bitcoin
(1:18:19) – The blockchain
(1:23:42) – Can Bitcoin fail?
(1:26:33) – Bitcoin scams
(1:30:17) – Patriotism
(1:32:41) – Human Rights Foundation
(1:37:15) – Conflict with China
(1:40:05) – Corporate accountability
(1:55:27) – Garry Kasparov and the HRF
(2:00:36) – Journalism, conversations, and truth
(2:07:50) – Alex’s book recommendations
(2:15:56) – Attacks on Bitcoin
(2:17:35) – The future of humanity
(2:21:57) – Advice for young people
(2:33:13) – Meaning of life

#230 – Kelsi Sheren: War, Artillery, PTSD, and Love

Kelsi Sheren is a veteran, artillery gunner, and founder of Brass and Unity. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Shopify: https://shopify.com/lex to get 14-day free trial
Justworks: https://justworks.com
Novo: https://banknovo.com/lex
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Onnit: https://lexfridman.com/onnit to get up to 10% off

EPISODE LINKS:
Kelsi’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/kelsiburns
Kelsi’s Website: https://brassandunity.com
Kelsi’s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kelsie_sheren
Charity: https://www.heroicheartsproject.org/
Do the F*cking Work (book): https://amzn.to/3mGhguF
Notes from Underground (book): https://amzn.to/3mN5TRF
Brothers in Arms (song): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jhdFe3evXpk

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(07:50) – World War II
(18:54) – Yeonmi Park, starvation, and mental health
(33:10) – Kelsi’s 9/11 experience
(36:39) – Becoming a soldier
(43:07) – Artillery: The Hand of God
(52:49) – Weapons training
(1:10:35) – Pre-Deployment
(1:26:42) – Arrival to Afghanistan
(1:48:55) – Tragic war story
(2:13:59) – Feelings after tragedy
(2:17:41) – The Taliban
(2:23:17) – Retrospective: 20 years in Afghanistan
(2:39:57) – How war changes people
(2:45:18) – PTSD
(3:14:13) – Ayahuasca and mental recovery
(3:46:09) – Love
(4:04:12) – Advice for young people
(4:07:33) – Death
(4:13:22) – World War II

#229 – Richard Wrangham: Role of Violence, Sex, and Fire in Human Evolution

Richard Wrangham is a biological anthropologist at Harvard, specializing in the study of primates and the evolution of violence, sex, cooking, culture, and other aspects of ape and human behavior. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
ROKA: https://roka.com/ and use code LEX to get 20% off your first order
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Grammarly: https://grammarly.com/lex to get 20% off premium

EPISODE LINKS:
Richard’s Website: https://heb.fas.harvard.edu/people/richard-w-wrangham
The Goodness Paradox (book): https://amzn.to/3aqg9tg
Catching Fire (book): https://amzn.to/3FAZAcz

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(08:13) – Violence in humans vs violence in chimps
(27:45) – Study of violence in chimps
(46:40) – Human evolution and violence
(1:43:08) – The Goodness Paradox and Catching Fire
(1:55:26) – How cooking changed our evolution
(2:10:11) – The beauty of the human mind emerges
(2:14:18) – A map of how chimps, gorillas, and humans are all related
(2:26:50) – Preserving nature
(2:34:41) – The meaning of life

#228 – RZA: Wu-Tang Clan, Kung Fu, Chess, God, Life, and Death

RZA is a rapper, record producer, filmmaker, actor, writer, philosopher, and the mastermind of the legendary hip hop group Wu-Tang Clan. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
ROKA: https://roka.com/ and use code LEX to get 20% off your first order
Athletic Greens: https://athleticgreens.com/lex and use code LEX to get 1 month of fish oil
SimpliSafe: https://simplisafe.com/lex and use code LEX to get a free security camera
Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/lex and use code LEX to get special savings
BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/lex to get 10% off

EPISODE LINKS:
RZA’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/RZA
RZA’s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/rza
Wu-Tang Clan Website: https://wutangclan.net

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(06:57) – Life and death
(14:16) – Quincy Jones
(19:39) – Quentin Tarantino
(23:05) – Kung Fu
(28:01) – Biggie
(29:48) – Tupac
(32:45) – Nas
(35:48) – Favorite verse
(39:46) – Who is God?
(44:56) – Wu-Tang Clan
(48:49) – Bruce Lee
(55:40) – Godfather
(1:01:36) – Veganism
(1:06:27) – AI
(1:10:41) – Chess
(1:14:00) – American Gangster
(1:19:55) – Creativity
(1:26:24) – Advice for young people
(1:29:47) – Meaning of life

#227 – Sean Kelly: Existentialism, Nihilism, and the Search for Meaning

Sean Kelly is a philosopher at Harvard specializing in existentialism and the philosophy of mind. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Coinbase: https://coinbase.com/lex to get $5 in free Bitcoin
InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/lex and use code Lex25 to get 25% off
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Ladder: https://ladderlife.com/lex
Sunbasket: https://sunbasket.com/lex and use code LEX to get $35 off

EPISODE LINKS:
Sean’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/sean_d_kelly
Sean’s Website: https://scholar.harvard.edu/sdkelly
Sean’s Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sean_Dorrance_Kelly

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(06:50) – Existentialism
(26:58) – Nietzsche and nihilism
(44:35) – Dostoevsky
(1:00:02) – Camus and suicide
(1:18:31) – The Big Lebowski
(1:26:20) – Ayn Rand
(1:36:28) – Evil
(1:47:03) – Heidegger
(1:58:43) – Hubert Dreyfus
(2:04:35) – Moby Dick
(2:15:51) – David Foster Wallace
(2:36:03) – Can AI make art?
(2:55:46) – Meaning of life

#226 – Jo Boaler: How to Learn Math

Jo Boaler is a professor of mathematics education at Stanford and the co-founder of youcubed. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Truebill: https://truebill.com/lex
Fundrise: https://fundrise.com/lex
ExpressVPN: https://expressvpn.com/lexpod and use code LexPod to get 3 months free
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Stamps.com: https://stamps.com and use code LEX to get free postage & scale

EPISODE LINKS:
Jo’s Twitter: https://twitter.com/joboaler
youcubed: https://www.youcubed.org/
Jo’s Books: https://amzn.to/2Y3S2xW
Elastic by Leonard Mlodinow: https://amz.run/4tCk
Deep Work by Cal Newport: https://amz.run/4tCl
3Blue1Brown: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYO_jab_esuFRV4b17AJtAw
Manim: https://github.com/3b1b/manim

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(06:48) – What is beautiful about mathematics?
(15:37) – How difficult should math really be?
(23:56) – Students giving up on math
(35:17) – Improving math education in schools
(45:14) – Inspiring mathematical creativity
(1:03:00) – youcubed
(1:07:20) – Best methods for studying math
(1:27:54) – Advice for young people

#225 – Jeffrey Shainline: Neuromorphic Computing and Optoelectronic Intelligence

Jeffrey Shainline is a physicist at NIST working on. Note: Opinions expressed by Jeff do not represent NIST. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
Stripe: https://stripe.com
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EPISODE LINKS:
Jeff’s Website: http://www.shainline.net
Jeff’s Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=rnHpY3YAAAAJ
Jeff’s NIST Page: https://www.nist.gov/people/jeff-shainline

PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
YouTube Full Episodes: https://youtube.com/lexfridman
YouTube Clips: https://youtube.com/lexclips

SUPPORT & CONNECT:
– Check out the sponsors above, it’s the best way to support this podcast
– Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman
– Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
– Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
– LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
– Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman
– Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman

OUTLINE:
Here’s the timestamps for the episode. On some podcast players you should be able to click the timestamp to jump to that time.
(00:00) – Introduction
(05:56) – How are processors made?
(25:15) – Are engineers or physicists more important
(27:43) – Super-conductivity
(43:31) – Computation
(48:07) – Computation vs communication
(51:48) – Electrons for computation and light for communication
(1:02:32) – Neuromorphic computing
(1:27:23) – What is NIST?
(1:30:41) – Implementing super-conductivity
(1:38:20) – The future of neuromorphic computing
(1:57:54) – Loop neurons
(2:04:09) – Machine learning
(2:18:36) – Cosmological evolution
(2:25:44) – Cosmological natural selection
(2:43:05) – Life in the universe
(2:50:52) – The rare Earth hypothesis